Senior Lecturer, Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute.
Head of the Department, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute, Chennai, India, 603103
Professor, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute, Chennai, India, 603103;
Corresponding Author: Dr.firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Chettinad Dental College & Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Kelambakkam, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu – 603 103, India
Nanoscience and nanotechnology come together with the mechanism to control, operate and structure the matter at an unimaginable smaller size: nanoscale - It includes both “atomic” and “molecular” scale that is 100 nm or lesser. One nanometer (nm) = one billionth of a meter. Many biological structures are at the nanometer scale - Human tooth. Enamel contains 96% hydroxyapatite with a range of 10 - 200 nm  and nanostructures of dentin are distinct. Peritubular dentin has structures in the range of 25 nm, whereas structures of intertubular dentin are of 60 nm in length and thickness of 2-5 nm, Collagen fibrils of dentine are in the range of 20 to 75 nm. Usage of nanotechnology in diagnosis, treatment and management of biological systems is called “Nanomedicine” by the National institute of health (NIH), USA. Emerging advances and latest nanotechnological data has modified the ancient perception intodental practice and new advancements have been developed to replace the lost oral tissues and to maintain its function. Thus, with the development of nanotechnology-based dental treatments, ‘nanodentistry’ evolved. The basis for this switch is to provide better oral health by developing newer materials for the diagnosis and treatment of dental pathologies, which are insufficiently treated by conventional drugs/materials  (Fig 1). The merits and demerits of the conventional materials are given in Table 1. 
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