Role Of Immune Cells In Periodontal Disease

Dr. L. Jebisha

Oral and Maxillofacial pathology, Chettinad dental college and research institute, Chennai, India,

Corresponding Author:

Dr. R. Sathish Muthukumar

Oral and Maxillofacial pathology, Chettinad dental college and research institute, Chennai, India,


Dr. C. Sreeja

Oral and Maxillofacial pathology, Chettinad dental college and research institute, Chennai, India,

Corresponding Author:

Dr. Merlin Jayaraj

Oral and Maxillofacial pathology, Chettinad dental college and research institute, Chennai, India,


Abstract :

Periodontitis is intricate & multi-factorial lesion. It is characterized by a group of inflammatory conditions in the periodontium which is caused by bacteria. Chronic inflammation is precise by B and T cells by the initiation in cytokine secretion, then osteoclastogenesis is modulated. The objective of the article briefly reviews the recent research and the consequence in B cell & T lymphocytes subsets, and the expression of cytokine seen in the morbific of the periodontitis. Gingival homeostasis is maintained by T reg (T regulatory), CD8+ T, and tissue-resident γδ, T cells plays a vital role in gingival hemostasis. Clinically healthy periodontium has a low percentage of memory B cells, evade bone damage due to subclinical inflammation. The RANKL -dependent method makes an alveolar bone loss and causes periodontitis. Stimulation of T and B lymphocytes subunits is one that causes either the seditious lesion will alleviate in chronic gingivitis or it may advance to a tissue destructive periodontitis


[1] Campbell, L.; Millhouse, E.; Malcolm, J.; Culshaw, S. T cells, teeth, and tissue destruction— what do T cells do in periodontal disease? Mol. Oral. Microbiol. 2016, 31, 445–456. [CrossRef] [PubMed ]

[2] Feng Z, Weinberg A. Role of bacteria in health and disease of periodontal tissues. Periodontology 2000 2006;40:50-76.] Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3949

[3] Gemmell E, Seymour GJ. Immunoregulatory control of Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000 2004; 35:21-41.

[4] Page RC, Offenbacher S, Schroeder HE, Seymour GJ, Kornman KS. Advances in the pathogenesis of periodontitis: summary of developments, clinical implications, and future directions. Periodontol 2000 1997;14:216-48

[5] Berglundh, T.; Liljenberg, B.; Tarkowski, A.; Lindhe, J. The presence of local and circulating autoreactive B cells in patients with advanced periodontitis. J. Clin. Periodontol. 2002, 29, 281–286. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[6] Bascones-Martínez A, Muñoz-Corcuera M, Noronha S, Mota P, Bascones-Ilundain C, Campo-Trapero J. Host defence mechanisms against bacterial aggression in periodontal disease: Basic mechanisms. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2009;14:680-5

[7] Darveau RP, Tanner A, Page RC. The microbial challenge in periodontitis. Periodontol 2000 1997;14:12-34

[8] .Dunsche A, Açil Y, Dommisch H, Siebert R, Schröder JM, Jepsen S. The novel human betadefensin-3 is widely expressed in oral tissues. Eur J Oral Sci 2002;110:121-4

[9] Chalermsarp N, Azuma M. Identification of three distinct subsets of migrating dendritic cells from oral mucosa within the regional lymph nodes. Immunology 2009;127:558-66.

[10]Marshall RI. Gingival defensins: linking the innate and adaptive immune responses to dental plaque. Periodontol 2000 2004;35: 14-20

[11]Hancock RE. Peptide antibiotics. Lancet 1997;349:418-22 .

[12]Lehrer RI, Ganz T. Cathelicidins: a family of endogenous antimicrobial peptides. Curr Opin Hematol 2002;9:18-22

[13]Van Wetering S, Mannesse-Lazeroms SP, Dijkman JH, Hiemstra PS. Effect of neutrophil serine proteinases and defensins on lung epithelial cells: modulation of cytotoxicity and IL8 production. J Leukoc Biol 1997;62:217-26

[14] Elson G, Dunn-Slegrist I, Daubeuf, B, Pugin J. Contribution of Toll-like receptors to the innate immune response to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Blood 2007;109:1574-83

[15]Akira S, Takeda K, Kaisho T. Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol 2001;2: 675-80.

[16]Liang S, Domon H, Hosur KB, Wang M, Hajishengallis G. Age-related alterations in innate immune receptor expression and ability of macrophages to respond to pathogen challenge in vitro. Mech Ageing Dev 2009;130:538-46.

[17]Takeda K, Akira S. Toll-like receptor in innate immunity. Int Immunol 2005;17:1-14.

[18] Hemmi H, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Kaisho T, Sato S, Sanjo H, Matsumoto M, Hoshino K, Wagner H, Takeda K, Akira S. A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA. Nature 2000;408(6813):740-45.

[19]Hauber HP, Tulic MK, Tsicopoulos A. Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 expression in the bronchial mucosa of patients with cystic fibrosis. Can Respir J 2005;12:13-18.

[20] Zhou J, Zou S, Zhao W, Zhao Y. Prostaglandin E2 level in gingival crevicular fluid and its relation to the periodontal pocket depth in patients with periodontitis. Chin Med Sci J 1994;9:52-5

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Technoarete Publishers 2022
  • ISBN - 978-93-92104-02-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Total No. of. Pages - 150
  • Available to everyone
  • Free Access